PPPs are viewed as key to economic revitalization. However, transparency in procurement is limited. Japan’s Act on Promotion of Private Finance Initiatives (PFIs) were launched in 1999.For the first year PFIs were involved in small projects but recently they are interested in hard infrastructure projects as well as unsolicited bids. This has been enabled by a 2011 amendment to the PFI Act, authorizing concessions with an operational phrase. The mainly use of this model is for airports.

2011 amendment created a cabinet level council for the promotion of PFIs, chaired by the prime minister. This provides expert support to authorities on developing PPP guidance and conducting feasibility studies. The government also established PFI Promotion Corporation of Japan (PFIPCJ) providing interest free loans to projects. Additionally, The PFI Act sets up strong principles for project selection, presented in the funding decisions of the PFIPCJ and Development Bank of Japan. The latter established a PPP/PFI Promotion Center in 2013 and has a great role in developing guidance on PFI projects. But still Japan’s ADR system needs to be tested for further major PFI concession project.

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