Similar to Mexico, Colombia’s PPP model is significantly more decentralized than that of other countries in the region but rather, each level of government entity is responsible for planning, implementing and supervising PPPs. Although there is no specific institution at the ministerial level that oversees or establishes policies for the entire country or all sectors, the National Infrastructure Agency is a key player in the structuring of PPPs in the transport sector. The National Infrastructure Agency’s strong role, for example in structuring the 4G concessions, and the prevalence of PPP project planning at the national level may be partly attributable to limited institutional capacity at the subnational level. In general, there is a political consensus on the importance of PPPs in Colombia and there has been a concerted effort in recent years to maintain favourable frameworks and be proactive in developing PPP projects.
In January 2012, Colombia approved a PPP law, which improves bidding mechanisms, levels the playing field for participating companies and seeks to increase transparency and objectivity. The law also allows the implementation of unsolicited proposals for PPP projects and has brought on what has been called “the fourth-generation of concessions,” whereby the government transfers environmental license and land acquisition responsibilities to the contractors.
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